Tag Archives: Gradle

Android Studio 1.1: Unit Testing on the local JVM

The Android Studio 1.1 update is still filtering onto developers machines. One important improvement is the addition of support for unit testing using the local JVM on your development machine. This feature is still experimental and must be enabled in the IDE settings.  You can read all about it on the official site:

http://tools.android.com/tech-docs/unit-testing-support

This new feature means the most popular open source Android Studio plugin for gradle unit tests will now no longer be developed or maintained:

https://github.com/evant/android-studio-unit-test-plugin

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Filed under Android Studio, Testing

Building an AAR Library in Android Studio

Purpose of AAR

Library reuse has long been available in Java based applications through Java Archive (.jar) files.  Android AAR files build upon this concept to allow you to package not only the source code but also the libraries self contained Android resources. The library can have its own manifest and resources and can also optionally provide assets, NDK built libraries, proguard configuration and even its own custom lint filters.  This is all bundled into a zip archive that can be published to a repository for your team (or the world!) to get easy access from a Gradle build.

AAR File Format

The AAR File format is simply a zip archive file with extension .aar. The archive contains:
  • /AndroidManifest.xml (mandatory)
  • /classes.jar (mandatory)
  • /res/ (mandatory)
  • /R.txt (mandatory)
  • /assets/ (optional)
  • /libs/*.jar (optional)
  • /jni/<abi>/*.so (optional)
  • /proguard.txt (optional)
  • /lint.jar (optional)

Creating an AAR library project

The good news is creating an AAR library is easy and Android Studio will do all the hard work for you.

Android Studio create library module

Figure 1: Create an Android Library

  1. Start by selecting New Module… from the File menu
  2. Select Android Library as the module to be created (see Figure 1)
  3. Step through the process of using a template for the creation of your library much like creating a new project

One key difference in the created library and an Android application will be the libraries Gradle build script includes apply plugin: ‘com.android.library’ instead of apply plugin: ‘com.android.application’.

When you build your project the AAR file will automatically be assembled and placed in these folders (Android Studio 1.0+)

| build
| outputs
      | aar
           | applib-debug.aar
           | applib-release.aar

Using AAR

You have a few choices as to how to include your AAR library in your project:

  • Publish to a external Maven repository
  • Publish to a local repository
  • Access from a local folder

While Gradle can be used to directly publish to repositories such as Maven Central, this article doesn’t cover publishing your AAR file to Maven repositories.

To include your AAR library as a dependency from a local folder:

1. Copy the AAR file into the libs folder in your project. Create this folder if it doesn’t exist. It needs to be located in the same folder as your application Gradle build file, not the top level project folder.

2. Declare the libs folder as a dependency repository in your application Gradle script.

repositories {
    flatDir {
        dirs 'libs'
    }
}

The Gradle flatDir repository declaration allows you to declare a file system directory that is a repository for dependencies for the project. In the example above I am using the libs folder which needs to be located relative to the location of the build script. The name of this folder does not have to be libs and it is also possible to declare multiple fileDir folders in the one project.

3. Declare your AAR library as a dependency:

dependencies {
    compile(name:'yourlibraryname', ext:'aar')
}

Manifest Merging

Earlier in this article we noted that the AndroidManifest.xml is a compulsory item in an AAR library. When an app includes your AAR library the manifest must be merged with that of the app, as there will be only one manifest included in an APK.

Merging manifests can quickly get messy when multiple conflicting manifests are all merged. The android tools user guide to manifest mergers is the best resource available to explain all the ins and outs of how the merge will happen and how you can control the merge.

The most basic rule of the merge is the order of priorities given to different manifests. From most influential to least:

  1. Product flavors and build types specific manifest files.
  2. Main manifest file for the application.
  3. Library manifest files.

So you can see your Library manifest sits at the bottom of the pecking order.

Most of the time this merging will happen like magic, without the need for intervention. If issues arise in the manifest merge there are a couple of places to start looking in order to track down the issue. The first place to check is the final outputted manifest file. The next place to check is the manifest merge report (which is saved into the app\build\outputs\logs\ folder of your project). The format and contents of the logging in the merge report is explained here.

References

AAR File Format

http://tools.android.com/tech-docs/new-build-system/aar-format

Manifest merging user guide

http://tools.android.com/tech-docs/new-build-system/user-guide/manifest-merger

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Filed under Android SDK, Android Studio, Gradle

Android Database Encryption using SQLCipher

Clone or fork this project from GitHub: https://github.com/bmarrdev/AndroidDatabaseSQLCipher

Data security is a hot topic that will only intensify under the weight of the petabytes of information accumulating in data centres around the world. Securing your users data is no longer a bolt on afterthought, but a non-negotiable in any system that deals with sensitive data. It is not just the data centres that hold this sensitive data, those ever increasingly powerful computers we carry in our pockets or strap to our wrists are a treasure trove of personal information that others would love to get their hands on. As an app developer it is your responsibility to do everything in your power to protect the users of your product. In doing so you are not only protecting those users but the reputation of your company. Wherever possible you must avoid storing sensitive data within your app. This article discusses the pros and cons of encrypting your Android database with SQLCipher for the cases where you have no choice other than to store sensitive data.

SECTION 1: SQLCipher

SQLCipher is often the go to choice for Android apps for the following reasons:

  • Strong encryption (256-bit AES)
  • Mature technology
  • Maintained and supported by its developers and the open source community
  • Supports virtually the same API as standard Android database functions

Unfortunately there is no such thing as a free lunch, it is important to understand not only the benefits but also the consequences of switching to an encrypted database. Here are a few to consider:

  • APK size will be increased substantially
  • Database performance will decrease
  • Secure management of the encryption key (or password) is required
  • Use of strong encryption has legal considerations in some jurisdictions

APK Size

Firstly there is APK size to consider. Using the sample project that accompanies this article as an example, a release build (without proguard enabled) of the APK expands from 1MB to over 9MB. This equates to 2-3MB for each architecture you want to support.

It is possible to build different APK files to support each architecture. When including SQLCipher this can lead to a significant reduction in the size of your app. For example, it reduces the size of the sample app included with this project by more than half if you build a separate app for each of armeabi, armeabi-v7a and x86. You can read more about distributing your app with multiple APK’s.

Performance

Any layer of encryption is going to come with a performance hit. SQLCipher is no different. If a 10-20% performance hit is going to impact the user experience of your app then you may want to look at different options. For most purposes the database in your app in unlikely to be big enough for this to cause an issue.

Key Management

To encrypt and decrypt you need a key. SQLCipher does some of the hard work for you, encrypting a password into a key using PBKDF2. This password however still needs to be managed and should not be stored within your source code.

Legal issues

Apps that use strong cryptography, such as the algorithms used in SQLCipher, have obligations for compliance to the strict United States export requirements. You should not add any encryption without understanding what these export requirements are and what your obligations are. This will not be discussed further in the article, you should seek your own clarification.

Before you can publish your app on the Google Play Store you must acknowledge that your software application may be subject to United States export laws regardless of your location or nationality and you certify that your app is authorized for export under these laws.

Partial database encryption

SQLCipher is applied to a complete database. It does not support encryption of specific columns in your database.

SECTION 2: Add SQLCipher library to your app

Update August 2015: Commonsguy has released an unofficial GitHub repository that packages the SQLCipher for Android distribution in a standard Android library module. You can use this as an alternative to following the steps in this section to unpack the official version from Zetetic.

If, after careful consideration, you have decided that you just have to store that sensitive data, this is how to use SQLCipher to do it. These instructions are for Android Studio 1.0+, if you are an Eclipse user you should visit the SQLCipher project home for details about how to add the SQLCipher library to your Eclipse project. When developing in Android Studio your first port of call for including libraries should be through the Maven repository via your Gradle script. Unfortunately at this time SQLCipher is not available officially through Maven so we will have to get the libraries and import them manually.

Step 1: Download the SQLCipher for Android binaries from here: https://www.zetetic.net/sqlcipher/open-source

What are these libraries? SQLCipher is written in C code. These libraries (.so) have been build using the Android NDK, which allows native languages such as C and C++ to be compiled and used by your Android app. Unlike the Java code in your app which is compiled to bytecode to run in Androids VM (Dalvik or ART), this library contains native code that is architecture dependent. This means there is a library for will support each possible architecture that the target device may use.

Step 2: In your app\src\main directory create two new child folders named jniLibs and assets.

Step 3: From the binaries you downloaded in step 1, copy the contents of the assets folder into your newly created assets folder and copy the sub-folders from the libs folder into your newly created jniLibs folder. Be sure that you have named the folder correctly and copied all the files as well as the sub-folder for each architecture type you wish to support.

Step 4: From the binaries archive you downloaded in step 1 you now need to copy the jar files from the libs folder into app/libs. In addition to these jars you also need to copy guava-r09.jar and commons-codec.jar into this folder. Currently these are not included in the binaries archive above. If you download the sample project attached to this article you can find the jar files there.

Step 5: To ensure your project can find the libraries add an include in your gradle script for your app module, this should go in the dependencies section. (This may already be present in your gradle script)

compile fileTree(dir: 'libs', include: ['*.jar'])

SECTION 3: Replacing your Sqlite database with SQLCipher database

Now the SQLCipher library is added for your project you need to do a clean and rebuild. Follow the steps below to switch your sqlite database across to a SQLCipher database. This will work even if your sqlite database is within a content provider.

Step 1: Replace imports that reference standard Android sqlite database classes with SQLCipher classes. To do this look for any import from the standard database classes, for example:

import android.database.Cursor; 
import android.database.DatabaseUtils; 
import android.database.SQLException; 
import android.database.sqlite.SQLiteDatabase;

Replace these with calls to the equivalent SQLCipher classes:

import net.sqlcipher.Cursor; 
import net.sqlcipher.DatabaseUtils; 
import net.sqlcipher.SQLException; 
import net.sqlcipher.database.SQLiteDatabase;

Step 2: Replace calls to open or create the database passing the password as an argument. For example:

getWritableDatabase()

Needs to be replaced with:

getWritableDatabase('my_secure_key')

Step 3: Add the initialization call to SQLCipher. This must be called before any call the SQLCipher classes and you should ensure that this is only called once.

import net.sqlcipher.database.SQLiteDatabase;
...
SQLiteDatabase.loadLibs(context);

Step 4: That’s it, build your app and run!

Remember to head over to GitHub to clone or fork the sample project: https://github.com/bmarrdev/AndroidDatabaseSQLCipher

SECTION 4: Distributing an App with native libraries

Since this article was initially release I have described in detail the considerations of distributing apps that include native libraries, such as those required by SQLCipher.

To learn more I recommend reviewing these articles:

Android NDK: A guide to deploying apps with native libraries

Android NDK: Version code scheme for publishing APKs per architecture

 

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Filed under Android NDK, Android SDK, Database, Security

Static Code Analysis using FindBugs (Android Studio)

There are many techniques, procedures and tools that can contribute to the quality of the source code your team produces.  One of those techniques is static code analysis and if you are using Android Studio you are probably using at least one tool for this already, Android Lint.  Lint is an very high quality tool that will not only give your Java source code the once over, but also your XML files, including layouts. It has deep knowledge about Android development patterns and it evolves with each SDK release, it should be the first stop for static code analysis in Android.  Every developer should pay attention when Android Lint waves that little yellow flag at you.

No matter how good Android Lint is, it is always worthwhile having a second and third opinion from different tools.  FindBugs is not an alternative to Android Lint, but it can be used as a companion. It is an open source tool that performs static analysis of your Java bytecode to warn of potential bugs, defects, security and performance issues.  It knows nothing about Android and is not a panacea for poorly designed apps, but it can provide a little nudge in the direction of potential issues in your software. As with all tools in this space it will never have a 100% strike rate, but it does allow the developer to take another look and think twice about a piece of code.

When an issue arises you will get a warning that is placed into one of nine different buckets. They are:

  • Dodgy code
  • Malicious code vulnerability
  • Bad practice
  • Correctness
  • Internationalization
  • Security
  • Performance
  • Multi-threaded correctness
  • Experimental

Each of these can be disabled if not required and you can also configure the confidence level at which issues will be reported.

Using FindBugs in the Android Studio IDE

Android Studio is built from the IntelliJ Java IDE which allows it to use IntelliJ plugins.  This is how you can integrate FindBugs into your Android Studio environment.

To open the IDE plugins go to the settings page (File > Settings…), and find the Plugins menu.  From here you can browse plugin repositories and do a search for FindBugs, or you can download the FindBugs plugin and install it manually from file.  When searching for the plugin you may find references to the QA Plug plugin.  This is another plugin that includes FindBugs and another way to get access to FindBugs from within your IDE and as a bonus it also includes other code analysis tools such as CheckStyle and PMD.

Executing FindBugs Analysis

Your code must have been built before analysis as FindBugs operates on the generated bytecode.  You can start the FindBugs analysis from within Android Studio by going to the Analyze menu, selecting FindBugs and then selecting the scope of the analysis to perform.  If you are using FindBugs through the QA Plug, you can access it from the Tools menu.

Exclude filters for Android

On first run of FindBugs you may be quite disappointed with the results.  With the default confidence level and no filters set FindBugs will report many issues that are part of the automatically generated android code to support functionality such as accessing resources.  For example, you may get many warnings similar to the these:

The class name R$dimen doesn't start with an upper case letter
The class name R$drawable doesn't start with an upper case letter

Take a look at the FindBugs manual for the specification of the filter format and details how you can create an exclude filter. For a filter that stops the warnings from Android auto generated code use the following XML:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<FindBugsFilter>
    <Match>
        <!-- ignore all issues in resource generation -->
        <Class name="~.*\.R\$.*"/>
    </Match>
    <Match>
        <Class name="~.*\.Manifest\$.*"/>
    </Match>
</FindBugsFilter>

Another issue you may hit are FindBugs warnings for JUnit tests. This can also be handled in the exclude filter file by adding the following:

<!-- ignore all bugs in test classes, except for those bugs specifically relating to JUnit tests -->
<Match>
    <Class name="~.*\.*Test" />
    <!-- test classes are suffixed by 'Test' -->
    <Not>
        <Bug code="IJU" /> <!-- 'IJU' is the code for bugs related to JUnit test code -->
    </Not>
  </Match>

This filter can be added to your Gradle build file for the automated builds discussed later, but for manually executed analysis you can add the filter in Android Studio. Go to settings dialog (File > Settings…) and select FindBugs-IDEA. Here you can configure the plugin settings and add the exclude filter list from an XML file.

findbugs_options

Run FindBugs again and you will have no one to blame except your team for the issues that are reported.

Automating FindBugs

Like other parts of the development process you can automate this static analysis. Gradle has support for the FindBugs plugin. To create a Gradle task you can add the following to the gradle.build in your project:

apply plugin: 'findbugs'

task findbugs(type: FindBugs) {
    ignoreFailures = false
    effort = "default"
    reportLevel = "medium"
    excludeFilter = new File("${project.rootDir}/findbugs/findbugs-filter.xml")
    classes = files("${project.rootDir}/app/build/intermediates/classes")
    source = fileTree('src/main/java/')
    classpath = files()
    reports {
        xml.enabled = true
        html.enabled = true
        xml {
            destination "$project.buildDir/findbugs/findbugs-output.xml"
        }
        html {
            destination "$project.buildDir/findbugs/findbugs-output.html"
        }
    }
}

Visit https://gradle.org/docs/current/dsl/org.gradle.api.plugins.quality.FindBugs.html for more information about configuring FindBugs in Gradle.

Conclusion

If your team doesn’t enforce clean Android Lint builds for your projects then stop looking at other tools now.  It should be your first line of defence for code quality standards.  If your lint pane is boringly empty then maybe it is time for another tool to give its opinion.  This is not a must have tool for every Android developer, but it does have its value.  It may only need to pick up a lazy security flaw once to make the configuration and automation time worthwhile.

References

FindBugs home http://findbugs.sourceforge.net/

FindBugs Intellij Plugin https://plugins.jetbrains.com/plugin/3847?pr=idea

Gradle FindBugs Plugin https://gradle.org/docs/current/userguide/findbugs_plugin.html

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Filed under Android SDK, Android Studio, Automation, Gradle, Performance, Security, Tools